In the 7thcentury BC, Van Lang Country of Hung Kings was established - Lang Son became the land of Luc Hai. From the 9th century to the 10thcentury, Lang Son became an administrative unit of Dai Co Viet, later renamed Dai Viet.
1. Lang Son in the early independent centuries (the 9thcentury – the 14th century)
During a long period of independence, with the name of Lang Chau, then Lang Giang, Lang Son was an important land of Dai Co Viet and Dai Viet, it saw exchanges between Vietnam-China residents and ambassadors.
In the three times of defeating Nguyen - Mong invaders, Nguyen - Mong army was defeated twice in Lang Son. Lang Son land, the northeastern border area of the country, contributed significantly to the victory of Dai Viet’s army and people (the 13thcentury).
2. Lang Son from Post Le Dynasty to early Nguyen Dynasty (the 15th century - early 19th century)
In 1406, when the Ming army invaded our country, Lang Son again made an important contribution to the Lam Son uprising: In early 1426, after liberating Thanh Hoa, the Lam Son army marched to the Red River Delta, combined with patriotic movements in unified localities in the struggle for national liberation.
Ai Chi Lang, considered the most important gate in the resistance war against Tong army in Ly Dynasty and against Nguyen - Mong army in Tran Dynasty, was chosen as the battlefield for surprise attack on the enemy’s army, more than 100 enemy cavalries were destroyed, Lieu Thang was hit by spear and died on the side of Ma Yen Mountain (September 20, the Year of Goat - October 10, 1427). Chi Lang Victory was significant to determine the outcome of the war, making an important contribution to ending the war for national liberation.
Lang Son from the 16th century to the 18th century
In early 1428, the last Minh soldiers withdrew from our country, the Lam Son uprising completely won victory, Dai Viet was restored, the country returned to peace, people everywhere returned to build their homeland. The lives of the Lang Son people were relatively peaceful, the cultural and spiritual life of the residents was increasingly improved, the frontier border was strengthened, the field land was further explored, many beautiful landscapes in Lang Son like Tam Thanh Cave, Nhi Thanh Cave were renovated. Entering the 16thcentury, along with the decline of the Le So Dynasty, Lang Son fell into a state of constant turmoil.
From 1527, the Mac Dynasty was established, Lang Son temporarily returned to peace, but there were still phụ đạo and thổ tù (positions in feudal courts) supporting the Le Dynasty, not following the Mac Dynasty. In the South-North Dynasties’ war, Lang Son was again subjected to the battlefield suffering.
3. Lang Son from the mid-nineteenth century to the end of the 19thcentury
From the middle of the 19th century, Lang Son’s socio-economic situation became difficult. In 1854, Lang Son was hit by a great flood, crop failure, famine occurred. The court had to mobilize neighboring provinces’ help. The situation lasted until the French colonialists invaded Lang Son (1885).
4. The transition from the patriotic struggle movement to the revolutionary struggle movement under the leadership of the Party
In 1891, the French colonialists set up a colonial government, they implemented many reactionary policies on politics and economics, making people's lives very miserable because of the burden of tax collection.
After the birth of the Communist Party of Vietnam (February 3, 1930), carrying out the campaign and building revolutionary mass movements in mountainous and border provinces such as Cao Bang, Lang Son with a view to creating smooth operation areas for the Party, the Communist Party Cell was established with the task of directing the revolution in the border mountains of Cao – Bắc – Lạng.
From mid-1930, the Party Cell guided the focus on building revolutionary mass organizations in the two provinces of Lang Son and Cao Bang. Mr. Hoang Van Thu was assigned by the Party Cell to set up the revolutionary mass movement in Lang Son.
5. The birth of the first Party Cell and the revolutionary struggle movement in the 1933 – 1940 period
Facing the constant progression of the mass revolution movements, the Party Cells in the border areas decided to establish a Party establishment in Van Uyen to serve as the core to direct immediate and long-term movements. Authorized by the Party, in mid-1933, Mr. Hoang Van Thu went to Thuy Hung, organized the admission of party members, established the Party Cell directly by himself as the secretary. This was the first Communist Party Cell in Van Uyen and also the first Communist Party Cell of Lang Son Party Committee later.
In compliance with the policy of the Tonkin Party Committee on continuing to consolidate and develop the revolutionary movement in ethnic minority areas, especially in mountainous border areas, in mid-1936, Mr. Hoang Van Thu - an officer in charge of directing Cao – Bắc – Lạng border areas directly returned to Bac Son to enlighten, organize revolutionary mass establishments. On September 25, 1936, the first Communist Party Cell in Bac Son was established in Mo Tat village, Vu Lang commune. Authorized by the Tonkin Party Committee, Mr. Hoang Van Thu went to Phi My, directly enlightened, actively fostered the masses, admitted new party members, established the Communist Party Cell to act as the core of directing the movement. On April 11, 1938, with the direct guidance of Mr. Hoang Van Thu, the first Communist Party Cell in Trang Dinh was established.
Bac Son uprising with the transformation of the revolutionary movement in the province:
On September 22, 1940, the Japanese army attacked Lang Son. After a few weak battles, the French army withdrew and dispersed through Bac Son to Thai Nguyen. The enemy government in these regions was disintegrated. Taking the opportunity, under the direct leadership of the local Party Committee, Bac Son people revolted to take the weapons of the French soldiers, armed themselves to fight the French, chase the Japanese.
At Nong Luc (Hung Vu), on the morning of September 27, 1940, after escaping from Lang Son prison, some comrades had a meeting with Party Cells in Hung Vu, Bac Son and so on with the policy to lead the masses to revolt to take power. On the afternoon of September 27, 1940, the people of Bac Son, Hung Vu, Chieu Vu, Tran Yen communes equipped with pistols, spears, and sticks were divided into three wings to attack Mo Nhai post. In the night of the same day, the attack began. Bac Son uprising broke out. The uprising soldiers took over Bac Son, and the enemy government was disintegrated. Due to a lack of careful preparation, we could not establish a revolutionary government and our army had not yet prepared a counter force, so it was suppressed by the French who retook over the district. However, the enemy army could not extinguish the fighting spirit of the people. The revolutionary movement and the atmosphere of Bac Son uprising remained.
6. August Revolution, 1945 (1941 - 1945)
From the end of 1944 to the beginning of 1945, under the direction of the Viet Minh General Department, the Cao – Bắc – Lạng Inter-Provincial Party Committee and the active mobilization and organization of national salvation from the Bac Son - Vo Nhai base, armed propaganda and struggle groups were born in many localities in the province such as Hoi Hoan (Escape Lang); Thuy Hung (Van Uyen); Chi Minh (Trang Dinh).
From April to July 1945, under the leadership and direct direction of Party Cells, Viet Minh departments in the regions of Bac Son, Binh Gia, Huu Lung, Bang Mac, Trang Dinh, Thoat Lang, Diem He launched the revolutionary masses to revolt to take power.
On August 19, 1945, the uprising won victory in Hanoi. Before that, on August 19 at Dong Mo (On Chau), the revolutionary masses owned the town and On Chau was liberated. On the same day, the armed forces and the revolutionary masses rebelled and took control of Mẹt Street, Huu Lung township. On August 21, the armed forces and revolutionary masses surrounded and disarmed the Japanese, took control of That Khe and liberated Trang Dinh. Next was the liberation of Thoat Lang on August 22; on August 25, the armed forces and neighboring revolutionary masses entered the town, surrounded the puppet provincial governor’s mansion, forcing the enemy to surrender.
7. Struggle against the French (from 1946 to 1954)
Implementing President Ho Chi Minh’s appeal for national resistance, on December 22, 1946, Directive "Nationwide Resistance" of the Party Central Committee, which outlined guidelines to direct the resistance: "All people, comprehensive, long-term, self-reliant”, Lang Son’s army and people of ethnic groups bravely entered new battles against the enemy.
The provincial leadership body withdrew from Ba Xa (Diem He) base to Keo Coong (Binh Gia) to promptly deal with the enemy's military plans right in Lang Son. By the end of 1947, the province’s guerrilla bases began to be built in Chi Lang (Loc Binh); Ba Son (Cao Loc), forming a guerrilla war belt in the enemy’s controlled area.
On October 30, 1947, the local armed forces coordinated with the main force to ambush the enemy at Bong Lau, destroying 94 French enemies, destroying and damaging 27 enemy military vehicles. The victory of Bong Lau opened a series of glorious battles of our army and people on Road No.4. Promoting the spirit of victory in Bong Lau, from the end of 1947, the armed forces continuously attacked and won many great victories in Deo Khach, Ban Nam, Lung Vai contributed to dissipating vitality and divided the enemy's massive attack plan.
In mid-1948, in good coordination with the army and people in the free region, the army and people in the frontline areas along Road No. 4 in Dinh Lap, Loc Binh, Cao Loc, Van Uyen, Thoat Lang, Trang Dinh regularly attacked the enemy. Carrying out the emulation movement "Stealing the enemy's guns to kill the enemy" launched by the Provincial Party Committee and the slogan "Owning Road No.4 to cut off Road No.4", on September 12, 1948, our army destroyed the Na Cay post without using any bullets.
Along with the strategy of mobilizing people to participate in the struggle, on September 16, 1948, our guerrilla forces attacked Lung Vai post, destroyed many enemies and collected many weapons. On the victory momentum, they continuously attacked Dong Dang, Lung Phay... posts, weakening the enemy.
From the beginning of 1949, the armed forces continuously attacked and destroyed the enemy, entered the stage of general counterattack, completely defeated the enemy.
In June 1950, the Standing Committee of the Party Central Committee advocated the opening of the border campaign led by Mr. Vo Nguyen Giap - Member of the Standing Committee of the Party Central Committee cum Secretary. On September 16, 1950, our troops attacked Dong Khe post. After two days and nights of fierce fighting, our army won victory. On the way of victory, the main forces, supported by the local armed forces, continuously attacked and destroyed the enemy on Road No. 4.
From October 3 to October 8, 1950, our army defeated two main French armies, destroyed their relief troops from Hanoi. On October 10, 1950, the enemy withdrew from That Khe township, Trang Dinh district was liberated. On October 13, 1950, the enemy withdrew from Na Sam, Dong Dang, two districts of Van Uyen and Thoat Lang were liberated. On October 17, 1950, the enemy withdrew from Lang Son town, Loc Binh and our army took over the town. On October 22, 1950, the enemy withdrew from An Chau (Dinh Lap), ending the French colonial occupation on Lang Son.
8. Lang Son after Dien Bien Phu Victory in 1954:
The province promoted democratic reform, initially built technical and material foundations for socio-economic development (1955-1960); implementing the first 5-year plan and combatting the destructive war of the US imperialism (1961 - 1965).
In 1961, before the successive failures in the "special war" in the South battlefield, the US imperialism frantically raided the North. During the years facing many fierce bombardment attacks of the American enemy, with many practical actions and high courage, youth volunteer teams and the main army contributed significantly to the achievements of army and people of all ethnic groups in the province.
While the province was consolidating, restoring and developing socio-economy, it was fighting against the the US imperialism’s destructive war with air force (1966 - 1972).
9. Socio-economic development (period 1973 - 1978)
During this period, Lang Son Provincial Party Committee advocated promoting economic recovery and development, carrying out three revolutions simultaneously - the revolution of production relations, the revolution of science, technology and the revolution of thought. The province promoted agriculture – forestry production, considering it as a key task to develop local industrial production and other economic sectors. By 1975, the province's food output increased by 7% compared to 1972, the movement of intensive farming, intercropping, increasing rice crops, crops was replicated and developed to remote highlands, more cooperatives had the movement to raise buffaloes and cows.
After the liberation of the South and national reunification, in 1976, the two provinces of Lang Son and Cao Bang were merged into Cao Lang province. Implementing the Resolution of the first Cao Lang Provincial Party Congress, by the end of 1978, Cao Lang province had achieved some achievements such as the province's GDP reaching 383 million VND, of which the value of agriculture and forestry output was 120 million VND. The food output reached 114 thousand tons. In December 1978, Cao Lang province was split into Lang Son and Cao Bang.
10. Promoting socio-economic development, protecting the national sovereignty of border territories (1979 - 1985)
11. More than 30 years of implementing Doi moi (Renovation) in socio-economic development
Entering the Doi moi period, besides some basic advantages, Lang Son has faced many difficulties and challenges. Being a mountainous and border province, with a low starting point, still poor, it has to face with extreme changes in climate and weather. In that situation, Lang Son Party Committee and its people of ethnic groups have "Together, unanimously" strived, united to overcome all difficulties, promoting the revolutionary tradition, and believing in the reform path. The province's reform cause has seen more and more important changes and achievements. The economy has continuously developed, the growth rate is quite high: GDP in the 1986 – 1990 period averaged 7.53% /year, in the 1991 – 2000 period, it was 9.57%, in the 2001 – 2005 period, it was 10.04%, in the 2006 – 2010 period, it was 10.35%, in the 2011 – 2017 period, it reached 8-9%.
Biên dịch: Phạm Hương
Hiệu đính: Vân Thùy